Speech Milestones

Birth to 3 months

Produces reflexive vocalizing (crying, coughing, sneezing, burping)

Coos and makes pleasure sounds

Produces some vowel sounds and back consonant sounds (k, g, ng)

4-6 months

Engages in vocal play

Produces raspberries and gurgling noises

Babbles and produces consonant vowel (CV) and (VC) combinations that contain constants such as (p, b, and m)

7-9 months

Increases babbling

Uses CVCV and VCVC

combinations (ex. mama, upup)- longer groups of sounds (bababa)

10-12 months

Starts to use different CV combinations that are longer and varies the consonant sounding closer to real words

Produces exclamation and question like sounds

Uses early consonants such as (b, p, m, n, w, h) and may start to produce consonants such as (t, d, k, g, ng, j)

1-2 years

Produces familiar animal sounds

Produces various consonant sounds at beginning of words

Imitates different speech sounds

Some final consonants deleted at 2

2-3 years

Uses k, g, f, t, d, n sounds

Produces a large variety of initial consonant sounds by 3

Mastery of vowel sounds by age 3

Should be producing consonant sounds at end of most words by 3

Is mostly understood by family members and close friends

3-4 years

Is understood by most people

Can speak in sentences of 4-5 words

Speaks without repeating words or sounds

4-5 years

Produces all speech sounds in words (possible difficulty with a few of the following sounds, such as: l, r, s, v, z, sh, ch, th sounds).

Is understood by most strangers the majority of the time

Note: There is variation in each child. This list is comprised of information from a variety of sources listed below. For more information please visit:





Receptive/Expressive Language

Speech and language milestone info-


Caroline Bowen Website: Ages and Stages- Language Development


Literacy Milestones

Literacy simply defined is the ability to read and write.

Children can start learning skills necessary to develop literacy at a very young age. Emergent literacy is the stage starting at birth into preschool:

Print awareness

Phonological awareness (recognizing that words are made up of different sounds and being able to manipulate those sounds and words through oral wordplay – eg.rhyming, isolation of sounds)

Shared reading

Pretending to read and write/draw

Pretend play with books

All of these are skills that are the foundation for development of reading. Read on for literacy milestones…

Linguisystems Guide to Communication Milestones (2012 edition)
Linguisystems Guide to Communication Milestones (2012 edition)

Red Flags

If you are worried about your child’s speech and language, please see review the signs of a speech, language and hearing disorder listed on ASHA’s website (link below), and please contact us to discuss your concerns further.

Website: https://www.asha.org/public/early-identification-of-speech-language-and-hearing-disorders/